Glen Discovery in GlenLyon
Discovery
About us
Tour Guide
History
Contact

Clan Gregor 1689 rising and Killiecrankie

By Peter Lawrie, ©2018

The Revolution and Killiecrankie

Introduction
This paper concerns the role of the Clan Gregor in the first Jacobite Rising of 1689/90 in Scotland, initially led by John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee. Donald glas MacGregor of Glengyle was referred to as Lieutenant Colonel and imprisoned in 1690-91. There are clues to the involvement of the clan in James's commissions and the acts of the Scottish privy council and committee of the Estates found by MacGregor Stirling and published in Amelia (vol 2 chapter 13) . Other references have been found to supplement Amelia and some explanation has been attempted.

A General Summary of the 1689 Rising
James VII had widespread support in Scotland, despite his personal Catholicism, when he became King in February 1685. [1]   The 1681 Succession Act of the Scottish Parliament confirmed the rights of the natural heir 'regardless of religion,' the duty of all to swear allegiance to that king and the independence of the Scottish Crown. [2]   The Test Act passed at the same time required all public officials and MPs to swear unconditional loyalty to the King, as well as 'promise to uphold the true Protestant religion.' [3]   The linking of these two meant Parliament would support James but he would not be permitted to alter the religious settlement.

James had been Lord High Commissioner when the Acts were passed as well as swearing to uphold them in his Coronation Oath. However, like his father and brother James believed in the Divine Right of Kings. When Parliaments in Scotland and England refused his wishes, he resorted to arbitrary rule. This would ultimately lead to his fall. [4]  

While there was some unhappiness with James's rule, it came to a head in June 1688, with the birth of a son creating the prospect of a Catholic successor in place of James' Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William. English politicians invited William and Mary to assume the English throne, although they had no right to offer the Scottish throne. When William landed, James fled to France on 12 December, and in February 1689, the English Parliament declared James had abdicated and offered the English throne to William and Mary.

John Graham of Claverhouse, elevated as Viscount Dundee on 12 November 1689, joined Cameron of Lochiel who had risen in support of James. A government force of about 3,500 led by General Hugh Mackay of Scourie folowed him North. However many of the men initially raised by Lochiel and Dundee deserted. [5]  

Dundee wrote from Glen Roy requesting reinforcements to John Drummond, Earl of Melfort, then James' Secretary of State in Ireland. However, Just 300 Irish soldiers under Alexander Cannon landed at Duart on 21 July.

Patrick Steuart of Ballechin had garrisoned Blair Castle for James. The Marquis of Atholl, despite initial support for the Jacobites, decided to take himself off to Bath "for his health". Dundee determined to prevent Mackay from attacking Blair Castle, so set out with the forces he had. Lochiel and 240 Camerons plus Cannon's 300 Irish joined Dundee at Blair on 26 July. Further reinforcements, probably including the MacGregors, joined him.

Battle of Killiecrankie Blàr Choille Chragaidh
Mackay's forces entered the Pass of Killiecrankie on 27 July. Dundee sent 400 men under Sir Alexander McLean to hold up Mackay's advance guard while he placed the remaining 2,400 on the lower slopes of Creag Eallich to the north. Mackay deployed facing uphill only three men deep to maximise his firepower. Dundee waited for sunset and at eight o'clock, ordered an attack. The Highlanders charged, fired at close range, dropped their muskets, and using axes and swords crashed into Mackay's centre.

The impetus of the Highland charge broke MacKay's line and the battle was over in less than 30 minutes. A retreat became a rout and over 2,000 were killed. [6]   Mackay himself escaped and with about 500 survivors made it back to Stirling.

However, nearly a third of the Jacobites had also been killed or wounded. Dundee himself was killed. The Irishman, Alexander Cannon assumed command, but he had no Gaelic nor could he understand the ways of the Highlanders. Lochiel left taking his men with him. [7]  

Dunkeld
Lieutenant Colonel William Cleland's Cameronian regiment, staunch Covenanters, were ordered to hold Dunkeld against Cannon. On 21 August 1689, the Cameronians took up defensive positions in the cathedral and the nearby mansion of the Marquis of Atholl. The Jacobites, outnumbering the Cameronians by more than four to one, stormed into attack. They forced the Cameronians back from all their outlying positions. [8]   At 11pm, after 16 hours of fighting, the Highlanders withdrew, leaving 300 dead or dying of their number in the town. The Cameronian Covenanters would claim this as a war-winning victory. Colonel Cleland himself died in the first hour of battle and command had fallen to Captain George Munro of Auchinbowie.

Cromdale
The following year, 1 May 1690, a Jacobite force of around 800 led by Thomas Buchan was met by a superior Williamite force at Cromdale on the Spey. The Battle was brief and half of the Jacobites were killed or captured, effectively ending the first Jacobite Rising in Scotland.


The Events of 1688/91 as edited from Amelia's account
1688. June 10. James Prince of Wales was born. A great joy and satisfaction to King James VII and the Royalist party, and great disappointment to Prince William of Orange and Princess Mary. The Prince of Orange determined to invade England on the invitation of a large protestant party who were alarmed at certain arbitrary measures on the part of the King.

In Scotland there was much dread of the contemplated foreign invasion, and the Privy Council in obedience to the King's command, dispatched an army to England early in October. It consisted of two divisions, one of Foot under General Douglas, and the second of Horse under Graham of Claverhouse, as Major-General; the latter was created Viscount Dundee on November 12. Both divisions joined the English army under the command of Lord Feversham.

After some weeks, many oficers and men deserted to the Prince of Orange who had landed in Devonshire in November. King James VII fled from Great Britain and joined his wife and child at the Castle of St Germain, December 28, 1688.

1689 March. A convention of the Estates was held in Edinburgh. The King's friends, finding their efforts in his favour were quite unavailing, decided to repair to Stirling for a separate convention, but this intention was not carried out. Viscount Dundee, having received warning of an attempt to murder him, left the Convention suddenly and left Edinburgh with forty or fifty troopers on March 18, proceeding to his residence, Dudhope, near Dundee. The Edinburgh Convention thereafter declared the throne vacant, and appointed a committee to draw up an Act to settle the crown on William and Mary, which was accordingly carried out in May 1689.

General Hugh MacKay, an officer who had served chiefly abroad, was appointed commander of the Revolution army in Scotland, which consisted of the Scottish brigade from Holland, some dragoons from England, and a levy of militia raised by proclamation.

1689. May. Dundee went first to the Gordon country to recruit. For some weeks he continued in the Highlands, sometimes at Inverness, sometimes in Atholl, puzzling and outwitting MacKay who had based his army at Perth. Dundee had in the meanwhile, been strengthening his forces in Atholl and other parts of the Highlands.

1689 July 26. MacKay resolved to march from Perth into Atholl at the head of 4500 men. MacKay encamped opposite Dunkeld and next morning marched onwards through the Pass, at the head of which the Highland army was waiting for him. MacKay was routed by Dundee and his Highlanders in the Battle of Killiecrankie. Dundee himself was killed, the victory therefore led to no permanent success.

General MacKay retreated to Stirling, but learning of the death of Dundee he proceeded again to Perth. Cannon, who succeeded to the command of the Highland forces, was ill fitted for the duties which devolved upon him, and notwithstanding some vigorous efforts on his part, the cause of King James became desperate, especially after the defeat of the King at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, July 1, 1690.

1691. August. King James allowed his officers and Chiefs of Clans to submit to the Government of William of Orange and make the best terms they could.

Clan Gregor
The Clan Gregor appear to have joined Dundee early in his campaign and it is therefore possible that they fought at Killiecrankie, but there is no actual proof of this. The account of their joining Dundee occurs in the "Grameid," "an heroic poem descriptive of the campaign of Viscount Dundee in 1689, by James Philip of Almerieclose, 1691. Translation from the Latin verse and notes" by Canon Murdoch of Edinburgh. [9]  

"After this, stalwart Glendessary, Cameron, with his company advances over the plain and with applauding shouts he unfurls mid his Clansmen his ruddy banner, with ancestral rite. Him the tribes of Lonach [10]   and the widely spread Clan of MacGregor accompanied as their leader. Then followed Macnabs, Cowals and Gibbons." [11]  
Unfortunately the Latin poem ends abruptly before the Battle of Killiecrankie.


Commissions and Warrants
March 29th 1689.
"To our trusty and well beloved the Laird of McGregor. James R.
"Trusty and well beloved we greet you well Wheras the wickedness of our Enemys hes reduced our affairs to the necessitie of requiring the assistance of our good subjects These are to will and require you with all your freinds and followers to be readie upon a call to come to our assistance at such tyme & place as you shall be appoynted And we heirby assure you that what Expenses you may be at, shall stand to our former declarations in favours of the protestant Religion, The Liberty and Property of our subjects, all which we will fully secure to them and that we will reward aboundantly such as serve us faithfully and such as do not this duety as becometh good subjects, we will punish so as shall terrify others in after tymes from the like wicked attempts.
"We expect your ready obedience and therefore shall send you our Commissions with power to you to name your other officers. In the mean time for what you shall doe in obedience to thes our royall commands for raising arming and training of Men for serving us and opposing our Enemys with your utmost force, These shall be to you and all others a sufficient warrand And so expecting from your Loyalty and Fidelity all the assistance you can give us, We bid you heartily farewell. Given at our Court at Dublin Castle the Twentyninth day of March One thousand six hundred and eighty nine years, and in the fifth year of our Reign.
By his Majesty's Command. MELFORT."
[12]  

"May 17th, 1689.
“Commission by James VII of Colonel to the Laird of MacGregor. James R.
"James the Seventh by the Grace of God King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland Defender of the Faith, to our trusty and well beloved the Laird of McGregor We reposing especiall trust and confidence in your Loyalty Courage and Conduct doe by these presents Constitute and appoint you to be Colonell of a Regiment of Foot of our ancient kingdom of Scotland Hereby giving you power to name and appoint your Lieut Colonell, Major, Captains, Lieutenants and Ensigns in your said Regiment. You are therefore to take the said Regiment as Colonell into your care and charge and duely to exercise as well the officers as the soldiers thereof, and to your utmost endeavours to keep them in good order and discipline and we heirby comand them to be obedient to you as their Colonell and you to obey such orders and directions as you shall from tym to tym receive from us, according to the Rules and Discipline of War and in pursuance of the Trust we have hereby reposed in you.
"Given at our Court at Dublin Castle the seventeenth day of May One thousand six hundred and eighty nine years in the fifth year of our Reign.
By his Majesty's comand. MELFORT."

Notwithstanding these Commissions it does not seem that Gregor ever took the field. Sir Humphrey Colquhoun of Luss in a petition to the Secret Council Dec.15, 1691 describes him as "The Laird of McGregour, a lawbydeing man, regularly paying maill and duty for Gregoriestoun" and craves the Council to assist in bringing certain defaulters of the ClanGregour to Justice.- Petition in the General Register House, Edinburgh. [13]  

The Laird of MacGregor thus commissioned by King James was Gregor, the 15th chief who died in 1693 and was succeeded as chief by Archibald, 2nd of Kilmannan. As Sir Humphrey stated there is no evidence that he "took the field". However, Donald glas MacGregor of Glengyle was subsequently titled 'Lieutenant Colonel' so it is likely that Gregor did act on his Commission from James and appointed Donald as commander in the field..

Breach of Peace
On June 8th an order was issued by the Council in Edinburgh - .
"Duncan Campbell in Dundurne Surety for Gregor McGrigor in Artrostane that he shall carie himself peaceablie & deutifullie to King William & Queen Mary under a penalty of 500 merks Scots, & that he sall appeir before the Council when callit &c. Signed Grigor McGrigor &c. Bond."-Original in General Register House, Edinburgh.

And this was followed up by others: -
"Keeping of the Peace. - "Gregor McGregor principall & Colin Campbell in Dundurne Cautioner, Penaltie 500 merkes. Bond to the Privy Council in Register House Edinburgh. The Council 11th August 1690 ordered it to be recorded, and the party to be charged as not having renewed his Bail."-Inventory in General Register Ilouse, Edin'.

June - "Keeping of the Peace.
"Patrik McGregor principall, and Colin Campbell Cautioner. Penaltie 100 lb. Stirling. Do., do. same order by Council at the same date.

"August - "Keeping of the Peace.
"Bond by Duncan McGregor principall, and Campbell of Clatheck Cautioner, 1000 merkis. Original in Register, and ordered by the Privy Council 11th August 1690 to be recorded."-Inventory in General Register House, Edin'.

"August 2nd. - "Order for liberation of Duncan McGregor from Edinburgh tolbooth, he swearing the oath alledgiance and to appear when called under penalty 1000 merks."-Record of Secret Council, Acta.

"August 10th. - "Duncan McGregour in Dunnira. John Campbell of Clathek, his Surety-Bond."-Original in Genl Regr Ho. Edinburgh.

“1690. January 3rd.- "Act for sequestrating the Rebells Rents-among their names 'Coll Donald M'Gregor •.•••• McGrigor of Braikley."' - Record of Secret Council, Acta.

Senior members of Clan Gregor had been 'kept in order' by the state by means of bonds with cautioners for their good behaviour. Gregor McGrigor in Artrostane is probably the 15th chief. Artrostane being Craigrostan on the east bank of Loch Lomond by Inversnaid, which Kilmannan the 16th chief and successor of Gregor in 1693 passed on to Rob Roy in 1701. As the actions of the MacGregors had come to the notice of the Government, the chief with Duncan Campbell in Dundurne, his surety were summoned under penalty to appear before the Council.
Duncan in Dunnira was the leader of the Patrickson MacGregors in Dundurn near Loch Earn
This action was followed by the sequestration of Colonel Donald M'Gregor (Glengyle) and McGrigor of Braikly (Loch Awe)

Orders by Proprietors
In the times of insurrection and Civil War the chief proprietors in different districts had to call out the vassals and men dependent on them, to provide protection for the country and be ready for all emergencies whichever side they eventually took up. The following orders were issued by the Williamite Lord John Murray, eldest son of the 'wavering Jacobite' 1st Marquis of Atholl, and afterwards 1st Duke of Atholl.

"1689. June 29. Lord Murray issued the following orders for Glen Almond. [14]  
'These are ordering you John Roy in Milne Rodgie to be one of our Captains in Glen Almond and William Roy in Downie his Levetenant for the east end of the Cuntrie.
“’And John Roy McGregor in Dalmore to be Captain for ye west end of the Glen.“'and John Dow McGregor Yr your Levetenant.
“’You are to convene the cuntrie and make choice of fourtie of the ablest men in the Cuntrie, every captain and his Levetenant is to command 20 for preserving of our cuntrie from Roberie, theift and depredations, and to obey whatever orders ye receive from us.
"'Every man to have 48 hours provisions with their arms to be always ready when required by their Captains under the pain of fourtie shillings for ilk time they are absent, and we ordain the officer to go upon the Captain's order to poynd therefore and ordains those that are not listed by the Captains to goe out, that they pay in their proportione of the fourtie eight hours provisions at ye rate of 2 pecks of meal in the week for ye fourtie men.'

Lord John Murray, later the 2nd Duke of Atholl, supported King William during the Revolution, taking the oath of loyalty to him in September 1689. His father, the 1st Marquis had supported James, but absented himself rather than take up arms. Many of the Atholl tenants joined Dundee's Jacobites under the command of his father's baillie, Stewart of Ballechin. Lord Murray ordered his tenants out, (as above) and laid siege for William to his family's ancestral home, Blair Castle, which Ballechin had fortified and held for King James. The siege was abruptly ended as Dundee's army approached, days prior to the Battle of Killiecrankie. The tenants in Glen Almond mentioned by Amelia were MacGregors. John Roy was a descendant of Alasdair gald and was proposed (see below) by the Marquis to be chief of Clan Gregor on the death of the 15th chief in 1693, although he refused.

Jacobite Bond of Association
Bond of Association dated the Castle of Blair 24th August 1689. (This followed the defeat at Dunkeld on 21st August)
"'Wee Lord James Murray, Patrick Stewart of Ballechan, Sr John McLean, Sr Donald McDonald, Sr Ewan Cameron, Glengarie, Benbecula, Sr Alexr McLean, Appin, Enneray, Keppoch, Glencoe, Strowan, Calochele, Lt. Coll M'Gregor, Bara, Large, McNaughton doe hereby bind and oblige ourselves for his Maties Service and our own safeties to meitt all ….. the day of Sep. next and to bring along with us of fencible men, that is to say"
the number of men which every subscriber was to bring follows. and Lt Coll McGregorers quota was 100 men. The paper continues,
"Bot in case of any of the rebells shall assault or attaque any of the above named persons betwixt the date hereof and the aforesaid day of rendevouze, wee doe all solemnlie promise to assist one another to the utmost of our power, as witness these presents signed by us at the Castle of Blair the 24th day of August 1689 years.'

Amongst the signatures is that of "Do; McGregor,~ i.e. Donald glas McGregor in Glengyle.

Bond of Association dated Tamentoul 15th Jan. 1690. [15]  
"Wee under Subscribers In testimonie of our Loyaltie to our Sacred and dread Soveran & for securite of our friends and good neighbours vows and protests befor the Almightie God and on our salvation at the great day, to goe on secreitlye and with all the power & strenth wee have, to strike and bide by one anothe; and when any of us heir underscribers shall be stressed or anywayes molested by anie partie or enime whatsomever, wee shall repair to their aid with all our strenth and pour and that upon the first call without any further moor or delay & that we shall never be byesed or broken of this association without the Consent of his Majesties General, and the major part of ourselves, so helpe us God. Wee have subscribed thir presents the 15th day of January 90 at Tamentoul, [now Tomintoul.]

Amongst the names of the subscribers is that of "Johne McGregor.” As Donald of Glengyle’s son and successor was John it is probable that this was the John who signed.

Lt Colonel McGregor in the Tolbooth
"December 2nd. 1690 -"Warrant for processing Lieut Col M'Gregor.
Recommended to their Maj:’ Advocate or his Deputes to raise and follow a process of treasone before the Lords of Justiciary against Leivt Coll McGreigor now prisoner in the tolbooth of Edinburgh for being in rebellion against their Majesties and for depradation, theft and Robbery. Record of Secret Council, Acta.

"February 5th. 1691 Anent a Petition given in to the Lords of his Majesties Privy Councell be Donald McGregour Shewing That the Petitioner having been apprehended in January 1690 by the Laird of Killmaronock and brought in to the Tolbuith of Edinburgh quhair he hes continnued Prisoner ever since And nothing being laid to the Petitioners charge except that he was accessory to the taking away the goods of the lands and tennents of Killmaronock And seeing the Laird of Kilmaronock not only does not insist against the petitioner, but, as he understands, is willing the Petitioner be set at liberty upon sufficient cautione And therfore humbly craving your Lordshipps to appoynte the Petitioner to be sett at liberty upon his finding sufficient caution to appear when called And in the mean tyme to keep the peace and not to Joyne with rebells or robbers as the said petition bears The saids Lords of thair Majesties Privy Councell having considered the above petition They give ordour & warrand to the Magistrates of Edinburgh and Keeper of the tolbuith therof to Sett the Petitioner at liberty furth of their tolbuith He first finding sufficient caution acted in the Books of privie Councell That he and Robert & John McGregouris his sones, & Malcolme McGrigour his brother son saIl live peaceably & with all submission to the present government under their Majesties King William and Queen Mary And that they shall not set consult nor contryve anything in prejudice thereof And shall not intercomune, converse or correspond with any rebell And that they shall not joyne nor associat themselves with any robbers or depredatours, nor doe any thing in prejudice to their Majesties Government or their Loyall subjects And that they shall appear before the Lords of their Majesties Privy Councell when called for under the penalty of ten thousand merks."-Record of Privy Council, Acta

“February 13th. - "The Lords of his Majesties Privy Council having heard a petition given in to them by Lieut Col Donald McGrigor, they do hereby grant warrant to the Magistrates of Edinburgh and keeper of their tolbooth to give the petitioner open prison They being always answerable for his safe custody."-Record of Secret Council, Acta.

"October 1st 1691 Act of liberation Leivt Col McGreigor takes the oath of allegiance - any little means he had, spent - his wife lately dead, he liberated without payment of house or servants dues." -Record of Secret Council, Acta.

An Analysis
Lieutenant Colonel Donald glas M'Gregor appears to have died before 1693 and was succeeded in Glengyle by his son John. John was probably the signatory to the bond in Tomintoul, since Donald by then had been imprisoned. The evidence of John's signature may indicate the presence of MacGregors with General Buchan in 1690 prior to the Battle of Cromdale. John's younger brother, Rob Roy, would have been 18 in 1689. He may also have been involved but there is no record of this. The petition of Donald glas in February 1691 includes "That he and Robert & John McGregouris his sones, & Malcolme McGrigour his brother son"

On 25 August, a week or so after Dunkeld "about 130 MacGregors led by Donald glas 'and his youngest son who lives under the Earl of Perth' (ie Rob Roy) raided the lands of Cardross and drove off 162 cattle. The raiders claimed this was an act of war not of theft, as they were acting 'for their masters'. The victim, Lord Cardross was a Colonel in King William's army and there were Lowland gentlemen with the raiding MacGregors. [16]  

Donald glas was captured in a subsequent raid with several others on January 11 1690, by William Cochrane of Kilmoranock and his troop of horse. [17]   Branded as a major villain, Donald glas could have expected execution, but the remnants of the Jacobite army under Cannon remained at large. Cannon offered to free the Williamite prisoners which he held in exchange for Donald glas but 'in case the said Mackgrigor suffers, he will cause ten of the chief prisoners in his power to be put ot death'. [18]  

The Jacobites obviously valued Donald glas. However, according to Stevenson, in an interview with the Lord Advocate, Sir John Dalrymple on 7 February 1690, Donald glas suggested that some of the Clan chiefs might be separated from the Jacobite cause if their grievances due to feudal impositions on them were settled. MacDonald of Glengarry and MacDonald of Keppoch were both mentioned. Nothing may have come of this, but the restrictions on him appear to have been subsequently lightened.

The Earl of Argyll favoured the release of Donald glas, but another Campbell, Lord Aberuchill, objected. Shortly afterwards the MacGregors descended upon Aberuchill's estate near Comrie and, according to Aberuchill, caused losses of over £1400 sterling.

Following the raid, Donald glas was threatened with trial for "treason, rebellion, theft, depredation and robbery", but a settlement was made on 9th February 1691 by which the privy council accepted the request of the heritors of Stirlingshire and Dunbartonshire, led by Cochrane of Kilmoranock who had captured Donald at the start of 1690, that Donald glas should be freed on caution of 10,000 merks that he, his eldest son John, youngest son Robert and nephew Malcolm of Marchfield would thenceforth behave peacefully and not associate with robbers or rebels.

Shortly afterwards the MacGregors were permitted to re-establish their Highland watch, commanded by John MacGregor in Glengyle and Archibald MacGregor in Kilmannan.

Donald glas took the oath of allegiance to William and Mary in October 1691 and was then given indemnity for his role in the Rising. He was informed he was liable for the costs of his imprisonment but this was waived in an "Act of liberation Leiut Col McGreigor takes the oath of allegiance - any little means he had, spent - his wife lately dead, he liberated without payment of house or servants dues."

The massacre of the MacIain's of Glencoe in February 1692 shows how ruthless the regime was prepared to be. The MacGregors, like other clans, got the message that submission was necessary. The implementation of the Massacre was the work of Rob Roy's uncle Robert Campbell of Glenlyon while Rob's sister Sarah was married to the son of MacIain of Glencoe.

An Act of June 1693 made a general provision for new courts in the Highlands to supress disorder, but in a final clause the penal laws against the MacGregors were revived depriving MacGregors of their name once more. [19]  

Donald glas was active enough to sign a Bond of Friendship with the Buchanans of Arnprior in May 1693, but appears to have died not long afterwards. His son John appears also to have died by January 1694, leaving a young son Gregor glun dubh. The second son, Duncan, left descendants but as he was not mentioned with the sons of Donald glas in 1691 may have died during the Rising.

Gregor MacGregor in Stucnaroy, the 15th chief (mentioned above as having received James' commission as Colonel) also died in 1693. The Marquis of Atholl attempted to promote John Roy, one of his own tenants as the new chief. John Roy was a descendant of Alasdair gald and resident in Glen Almond. However, John Roy had no desire to be chief and persuaded Archibald of Kilmannan, a cousin of Gregor, to become chief instead. Atholl is said to have been incandescent with rage as Kilmannan was a tenant of his great rival, the earl of Montrose. Once he became chief, Kilmannan purchased the lands of Craigrostan from Colquhoun of Luss and handed over part of them, the farm of Inversnaid, to Rob Roy.



[1] Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685–1720 Tim Harris 2005 pp.39-65

[2] Restoration Scotland, 1660–1690: Royalist Politics, Religion and Ideas; Clare Jackson 2003 pp.38-54

[3] Harris, Tim; Taylor, Stephen, eds. (2015). The Final Crisis of the Stuart Monarchy. Boydell & Brewer. p. 122. ISBN 1783270446.

[4] Revolution; the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685–1720, Tim Harris 2005 pp.153-178

[5] Macpherson, James (1775). Original Papers: Containing the Secret History of Great Britain (2017 ed.). Hansebooks. pp. 357–358. ISBN 3743435721.

[6] Hill, James (1986). Celtic Warfare 1595-1763 (2017 ed.). Dalriada Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 097085255X.

[7] Magnusson, Magnus. (2001). Scotland: The Story of a Nation. pp. 518–520. Harper Collins

[8] Hopkins. P. (1986). Glencoe and the End of the Highland War

[9] Edited from the original manusript with translation, introduction and notes by the Rev. Alexander D. Murdoch, F.S.A. Scot. Printed for the Scottish History Society, 1888.

[10] ibid "The Lonach tribe I take to be the Lennox tribe, chiefly the scattered tribe of the McGregors between whom and the Camerons there was great friendship, owing to the kindly attitude of old Alan McConnel at the time of their greatest calamity. Old Alan's son, another Alan, married in 1666 Jean McGregor, sister of the Laird of McGregor." Ibid

[11] ibid Quem Lonochaes tribus, lateque effuss Gregori Progenies stipata Ducem, tun deinde secuti Nabide prognati, Cowloque et Gibbone."

[12] Commissions of March 29 and May 17 from Transumpts in the Collections of MacGregor of Balhaldies.

[14] From "chronicles of the Atholl and Tullibardine Families," compiled by John, Duke of Atholl, K.T., printed for private circulation, 1897

[15] The Acts of Parliament of Scotland printed by command of his Majesty King George the Third, vol. ix., appendix. Quoted in Browne's Highlanders, vol. ii., p.183.

[16] Quoted from Stevenson, "The Hunt for Rob Roy", p17 and note: Declaration from Cardross's tenants in P Hopkins, "Glencoe and the end of the Highland War (1986)" p190

[17] "An Account of the proceedings of the Estates in Scotland, 1689-90", SHS 1955, ii, 86-87

[18] "An Account of the proceedings of the Estates in Scotland, 1689-90" SHS 1955, ii, 102-3

[19] Quoted from Stevenson p22, "T Thomson and C Innes "Acts of the Parliament of Scotland (12 vols) 1844-75. v, 44-5; ix, 324-5